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This pidgin was gradually relexified with vocabulary from Indonesic Proto Malagasy which was still the language of the Weju metropolis in Southeast Asia and also with vocabulary from Malayo-Javanic languages for as long as contacts lasted between the colony and its metropolis. Mahdi shows that some of the irregular derivations which he tries to solve with morphophonemes can be explained as historically regular morphophonemic patterns which later became disrupted. Firstly, in order to ascertain the language ability of children and young people it was necessary to test them because speakers younger than 20 rarely, if ever, speak Alune, making it impossible to obtain examples of natural language use. In opposition to Abstandsprachen Kloss Long vowels do not necessarily have to be followed by a single consonant, for example riimput ‘grass’ and riimbut ‘hair’. His Proto Austronesian palatal consonants in wordfinal position have to be rejected.

IJka the name of an Indonesian island are in any way re lated to Minangkabau awak p. Simon considers the East Barito languages to have grown out of a dialect chain. Adelaar, on the origins of Sri Lanka Malay and on the early history of Malagasy, and ones by Stephen Levinsohn, on di clauses in Malay, and Margaret Florey on shifting patterns of language allegiance. SLM has long and short vowels, for example: O’Grady University of Victoria, B. This policy has been adopted to make cataloguing, bibliographic referencing, and finding volumes in libraries simpler. His remark that all Malagasy dialects stem from the same stock language is also relevant in view of some confusing views held by other scholars on this matter. McKaughan University of Hawaii P.

This is no longer possible as modern political leaders frequently have weak links with the village and are unskilled in traditional practices. Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie In Hein Steinhauer, ed. In this selling, in which younger speakers do not ordinarily speak Alune, this problem was compounded by the stress which the task caused the respondents. The use of Malay for administrative purposes was vital, and the number of speakers of most vernaculars was too small for teaching the vernacular as a subject in schools.

Ambonese Malay has su!

Thus there was recognition of the problem at the highest government level, but no solution. Simon seems to have had difficultie s in integrating the great mass of material involved in his study. At the time linguistics concentrated less on variation in language than on structure.

Notwithstanding my criticisms, I consider Mahdi’s book a major contribution to Austronesian and Malagasy comparative linguistics.

Some other textual samples are used mallam illustrate official Malay usage of the period. Katst textbooks had always been published by commercial publishers, mainly by Visser. In spite of the regional differences most Malay varieties of the convergent type were mutually intelligible. The speakers’ codes consist of the speaker’s initials, age and sex. Paradoxically, of all the regions where convergent Malay gradually developed into a modern culture language, it was Java that became the leading region.

The allegro forms of pupa vary from one dialect to another: The assumption that the first Malagasy migrants were Malay subordinates may be queried in the light of a few lines on the 7th century Old Malay inscriptions in a language which is seemingly an early form of Malagasy. In order to arri ve at a phonological history of Malagasy, Mahdi starts out nakk a delineation of the dissemination and interrelationship of the Austronesian languages.


In summary, the features which are possible criteria for a classification of SLM among the other Malay dialects are the ones numbered 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, and Many of these are interesting, but one also has to be wary of a substantial number of ill-founded etymologies.

For example, Mahdi places Rejang in his group of Urangic languages, while its phonological and morphological history sets it quite apart from the other languages of this group. IJka the name of an Indonesian island are in any way re lated to Minangkabau awak p.

What are the roots of Malagasy? Rather it points to the fact that spisode aspects of the process of language shift are revealed once we take into account cultural knowledge and differing contexts of language use.

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At that time they themselves were obviously more concerned with the cause of political unity than with the problem of the variation in their usage of Malay. Historically it seems to be closest to North Moluccan Malay on account of the shared innovations of neutralisation of final nasals, assimilation of schwa to a following high vowel, and the allegro form -pe of pupa.

The Madurese are re lative late-comers in Indonesian history. SLM aqa fullara, aid reduced progressive aspect SM ada, however, is not used for aspectual purposes SLM suda fullso reduced perfective aspect SM sudah perfective aspect SLM anti fullatti, ati, ti reduced future tense SM nanti ‘soon’ SLM piggi fullpi reduced ‘go; past’, compare pi riima-na!

Through other migrations which followed about a century later, the remaining non-south-western dialect of Indonesic Proto Malagasy developed into a western branch ancestral to the various forms of Sakalava, and a branch ancestral to the northern dialects Tsimihety and Antankarana and the eastern dialects including Merina and Betsileo. The early Austronesians, says Mahdi, must have left their original homeland on the south-east coast of Ch ina along different routes.

The courses resulted in the establishment of the lnstituut Kats Institute for the furtherance of the knowledge of native languages and of the geography and ethnology of the Netherlands Indies. Within the modern Indonesian context, they fe lt that a return to the mountains would limit opportunities for further education as children were reluctant to spend long periods of time far from their family and village. New York and London: MIsunderstanding of wliether the first or second person singular pronoun is required is a common problem in elicitation tasks.

For the first circle, relatives and friends, Kats had his. For instance, in addition to the historical evidence for a fair representation of Moluccans among the early Indonesians in Sri Lanka, the linguistic phenomena of neutralisation of final nasals and the allegro form of pupa pe are strong qualitative evidence for a subclassification of SLM with the North Moluccan variant of Moluccan Malay.


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At the opposite end are varieties that serve as tools for wider communication. Knowledge of these was considered essential before baptism could take place and old people today tell stories of the difficulties of learning in a language with which they had little familiarity. Here Kats includes also the language of the press, of advertisements, and even of pan tuns traditional verses and bubuur wisdom. Speakers and writers from the Outer Islands, especially from Sumatra with its native Malay background, became the pre-eminent preservers of the Malay warp thread in the multicoloured and often loose texture of the newly emerging bahasa Indonesia.

They allegedly founded one or several.

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In spite of such objections Kats deserves credit for compiling this survey of varieties of spoken and written Malay. According to Mills, original final stops in South Sulawesi languages first acquired a preglottalised and unreleased pronunciation, and were later reduced to glottal stops.

In one respect, tad, I believe that the available data allow us to frame a hypothesis be it very tentative and speculative as regards the social setting in which the migration s took place.

It may also have to include influence from Cushitic and Khoisan languages. E stay in hut Bubbur ami due me tale lpl.

As this literature developed, Indonesian intellectuals stopped calling the language Malay and instead referred to it as the Indonesian language Bahasa Indonesia. According to members of the first class who are still alive today, the use of Alune was strictly forbidden and incurred severe punishment. It was not unusual for these soldiers to bring their wives along when they embarked for Sri Lanka.

If the possessed noun is alienable the pronominal marker precedes it, whereas the pronominal marker follows the possessed noun in an inalienable construction.

The Malagasy have not left any trace in Southeast As ia, and today the peop les of the South-East Barito area are dependent on the city of Banjannas in for contacts with the outs ide world.

However, it is difficult to make an accurate subdivision of SLM unless more data become available on the nature, the history, and the interrelationship of the various forms of Malay which originated through contact with non-malays.!

SLM tfiijal SM tai an hand cbi cium ki ss p: